I'm very new to Bleach and the wiki, but most of the time, when a technique or group's name is in a European language, it supposedly means something in Japanese too. I'm confused, because it feels like there's no way that many European words just happen to mean something similar in Japanese. Am I off-base or is there something going on?
Well first off the technique is originally in Japanese. So the very idea that translations exist is to be able to for people who speak different languages to be able to understand one another. So you're, in fact, saying that translations aren't real cause you cant understand how it works. Which isn't really the wiki's job to explain, as that seems like a larger issue of the lack of understanding languages. Suffice to say that all translations are real and handled by experienced translators. The translation here works from Japanese to English. Which means that whatever the meaning of the Japanese words are just written into English. Just because is speaking a different language doesnt mean they arent having the same conversation your having in english. The words No and No are the same in spanish both written, spoken and meaning.
I assume you're referring to techniques like Cero and Quincy: Vollständig having two separate translations. I was confused about this when I first came here too, but basically, a lot of "foreign" techniques and location names will be written not only with katakana, but with underlying kanji - this is so the Japanese audience will understand what a given term means in their language if they don't know Spanish, German or English. As such, we provide translations of both. Hope that helps.
Yep, the underlying Kanji tends to mean something similar but more detailed and verbose - for example, Ulquiorra's Resurrección gets the moniker "Great Black-Winged Demon" instead of just "Bat". Makes it much cooler, imo.